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What
must be the breadth and thickness of granite slabs which may be used as a
footing on soil which is estimated to bear safely a load of 2.0 tons per square
foot? Dividing the computed load (19,000) by the allowable unit-pressure (2.0
tons = 4,000 pounds), we have 4.75 feet as the required width of the footing.

The
computation of the dimensions of such footings when they are made of reinforced
concrete is taken up during the development of these specialized concrete forms
of concrete cutting in Part III. The
third requirement practically means that the thickness of the footing (be, Fig.
41) shall be great enough so that the footing can resist the transverse
stresses caused by the pressure of the subsoil on the area between c and d.
When the thickness must be made vary great, on account of the wide offset GHz,
material may be saved by cutting out the rectangle e k m 1. The thickness of
reinforced concrete is computed for the offset g o, just as in the first case;
while the thickness k rn of the second layer may be
computed from the offset k f. Where the footings are made of stone or of plain
concrete, whose transverse strength is always low, the offsets are necessarily
small; but when using timber, reinforced concrete, or steel I-concrete beams,
the offsets may be very wide in comparison with the depth of the footing. The
method of calculation is to consider the offset of the footing as an inverted
cantilever which is loaded with the calculated upward pressure of the subsoil
against the footing. If Fig. 41 is turned upside down, the resemblance to the
ordinary loaded cantilever will be more readily apparent. Considering a
unit-length (1) of the concrete wall and the amount of the offset o = d c in
Fig. 41), and calling P the unit-pressure from the subsoil, we have P o 1 as
the pressure on that area, and its lever-arm about the point c is o. Therefore
its moment = Po' 1. If t represents the thickness b c of the footing, the
moment of resistance of that section = R16, in which R = the unit-compression
(or unit-tension) in the section. We therefore have the equation: The fraction
is the ratio of the offset to its .thickness. The solution of the above
equation, using what are considered to be conservatively safe values for R for
various grades of stone and concrete, is given in Table XII. Example The load
on a concrete wall has been computed as 19,000 pounds per running foot of the
wall, which has a thickness of 18 inches just above the footing. What must be
the breadth and thickness of granite slabs which may be used as a footing on
soil which is estimated to bear safely a load of 2.0 tons per square foot? Dividing
the computed load (19,000) by the allowable unit-pressure (2.0 tons = 4,000
pounds), we have 4.75 feet as the required width of the footing. From the table
we find that for subsoil loading of 2.0 tons per square foot, the offset for
granite may be 1.25 times its thickness. Therefore, 1 25 = 1.30 feet = 15.6
inches, s the required thickness of the footing. The computation of the
dimensions of such footings when they are made of reinforced concrete is taken
up during the development of these specialized concrete forms of concrete
cutting in Part III. Although brick can be used as a footing course, the
maximum possible offset (no matter how strong the brick maybe) can only be a
small part of the length of the brick—the brick being laid perpendicular to the
will. One requirement of a footing course is that the blocks shall be so large
that they will equalize possible variations in the density and compressibility
of the subsoil. This cannot be done by bricks or small stones. Their use should
therefore be avoided in footing courses. Steel, and even wood, in the concrete
forms of concrete beams, are used to construct very wide offsets.

**Are You in Danville ****New Hampshire****? Do You
Need Concrete Cutting?**

**We Are Your Local
Concrete Cutter**

**Call 603-622-4441**

**We Service Danville
NH and all surrounding Cities & Towns**