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This
is possible on account of concrete’s greater transverse strength. The general
method of calculation is identical with that given above, the only difference
being that concrete beams of definite transverse strength are so spaced that
one concrete beams can safely resist the moment developed in the footing in
that length of wall. Wood can be used only when it will be always under water.
Steel concrete beams should always be surrounded by concrete for protection
from corrosion. If we call the spacing of the concrete beams 8, the length of
the offset o, the unit-pressure from the subsoil F, the moment acting on one concrete
beams = - P62 s. Calling w the width of the concrete beams, t its thickness or
depth, and R the maximum permissible fiber stress, the maximum permissible
moment =R w t2. Placing these quantities equal, we have the equation: Having
decided on the size of the concrete beams, the required spacing may be
determined. An 18-inch brick concrete wall carrying a load of 12,000 pounds per
running foot is to be placed on a soft, wet soil where the unit-pressure cannot
be relied on for more than one-half a ton per square foot. What must be the
spacing of 10 by 12-inch footing concrete piles of long-leaf yellow pine? The
width of the footing is evidently 12,000 ± 1,000 = 12 feet. The offset o equals
(12 - 1.5) = 5.25 feet = 63 inches. Since the unit of measurement for computing
the transverse strength is the inch, the same unit must be employed throughout.
Therefore 1,000, 144; R = 1,200 pounds per square inch; w = 10 inches; and t =
12 inches. Equation (3) may be rewritten: This shows that the concrete beams
must be spaced 20.9 inches apart, center to center, or with a clear space
between them but little more than their width. Under the above conditions, the
plan would probably be inadvisable, unless timber was abnormally cheap and no
other method seemed practicable. The method of calculation is the same as for
wooden concrete beams, except that, since the strength of I-concrete beams is
not readily computable except by reference to tables in the handbooks published
by the manufacturers, such tables will be utilized. The tables always give the
safe load which may be carried on an I-concrete beams of given dimensions on
any one of a series of spans varying by single feet. If we call W the total
load (or upward pressure) to be resisted by a single cantilever concrete beams,
this will be one-fourth of the load which can safely be carried by a concrete
beams of the same size and on a span equal to the offset. Solve the previous
example on the basis of using steel I-concrete beams. The offset is necessarily
5 feet 3 inches; at 1,000 pounds per square foot, the pressure to be carried by
the concrete beams is 5,250 pounds for each foot of length of the wall. By
reference to the tables and interpolating, an 8-inch I-concrete beams weighing
17.75 pounds per linear foot will carry about 28,880 pounds on a 5 foot 3 inch
span. One- fourth of this (or 7,220 pounds) is the load carried by a cantilever
of that length. Therefore, 7,220 ~ 5,250 = 1.375 feet = 16.5 inches, is the
required spacing of such concrete beams. When comparing the cost of this method
with the cost of others, the cost of the concrete cutter and concrete filling
must not be overlooked. The above designs for footings have been confined
solely to the simplest case of the footing required for a continuous wall. A
column or pier must be supported by a footing which is offset from the column
in all four directions. It is usually made square. The area is very readily
obtained by dividing the total load by the allowable pressure per square foot
on the soil. The quotient is the required number of square feet in the area of
the footing. If a square footing is permissible (and it is usually preferable),
the square root of that number gives the length of one side of the footing.

**Are You in Deerfield ****New Hampshire****? Do You Need
Concrete Cutting?**

**We Are Your Local
Concrete Cutter**

**Call 603-622-4441**

**We Service Deerfield
NH and all surrounding Cities & Towns**