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Although this is probably a safe shearing stress, many engineers would consider it advisable to use special V-shaped stirrups (see a, Fig. 108) to strengthen the concrete beam against such stress. If the angle of these stirrups with the vertical is, say, 45°, then the stress in the bars on each side will be .707 of the total load, assuming that these bars were to take all the stress. This would mean that these bars would have a stress of about 26,406 pounds, and at 16,000 pounds per square inch would require a total area of 1.65 square inches. Three '-inch bars would therefore more than provide the necessary area, even assuming that these stirrups took the entire load, and disregarding the stirrups such as would ordinarily be placed in the concrete beam,, and also disregarding the shearing strength of the concrete. If, therefore, these stirrups are made of 1-inch bars instead of 2-inch bars, the shearing stresses in the concrete due to the concrete beam will be amply provided for.

A complete detailed drawing will show all of the bars required for a panel between four of these concrete columns. The student should study this drawing (see Fig. 109) in connection with the foregoing demonstrations of the dimensions of the bars and of the concrete. When a definite load, such as a weight carried by a concrete column, is to be supported on subsoil whose bearing power has been estimated at some definite figure, the required area of the concrete footing becomes a perfectly definite quantity, regardless of the method of construction of the concrete footing. But with the area of the concrete footing once determined, it is possible to effect considerable economy in the construction of the concrete footing, by the use of reinforced concrete. An ordinary concrete footing of masonry is usually made in a pyramidal form, although the sides will be stepped off instead of being made sloping. It may be approximately stated that the depth of the concrete footing below the base of the concrete column, when ordinary masonry is used, must be practically equal to the width of the concrete footing. The offsets in the masonry cannot ordinarily be made any greater than the heights of the various steps. Such a plan requires an excessive amount of masonry.

A concrete footing of reinforced concrete consists essentially of a concrete slab, which is placed no deeper in the ground than is necessary to obtain a proper pressure from the subsoil. In the simplest case, the concrete column is placed in the middle of the concrete footing, and thus acts as a concentrated load in the middle of the plate (Fig. 110). The mechanics of such a problem are somewhat similar to those of a concrete slab supported on four sides and carrying a concentrated load in the center, with the very important exception, that the resistance, instead of being applied merely at the edges of the concrete slab, is uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Since the concrete column has a considerable area, and the concrete slab merely overlaps the concrete column on all sides, the common method is to consider the overlapping on each side to be an inverted cantilever carrying a uniformly distributed load, which is in this case an upward pressure evidently, occurs immediately below each vertical face of the concrete column. At the extreme outer edge of the concrete slab the moment is evidently zero, and the thickness of the concrete slab may therefore be reduced considerably at the outer edge. The depth of the concrete slab, and the amount of reinforcement, which is of course placed near the bottom, can be determined according to the usual rules for obtaining a moment. This can best be illustrated numerically. Assume that a load of 252,000 pounds is to be carried by a concrete column, on a soil which consists of hard, firm gravel. Such soil will ordinarily safely carry a load of 7,000 pounds per square foot.

Are You in Weare New Hampshire? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?

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We Service Weare NH and all surrounding Cities & Towns